Volume 31, Issue 2 p. 244-272
Special Issue Article

Initial results from Phase 2 of the international urban energy balance model comparison

C. S. B. Grimmond

Corresponding Author

C. S. B. Grimmond

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK.Search for more papers by this author
M. Blackett

M. Blackett

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK

Search for more papers by this author
M. J. Best

M. J. Best

Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK

Search for more papers by this author
J.-J. Baik

J.-J. Baik

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea

Search for more papers by this author
S. E. Belcher

S. E. Belcher

Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK

Search for more papers by this author
J. Beringer

J. Beringer

School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, 3800, Australia

Search for more papers by this author
S. I. Bohnenstengel

S. I. Bohnenstengel

Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK

Search for more papers by this author
I. Calmet

I. Calmet

Equipe Dynamique de l'Atmosphère Habitée Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides (UMR CNRS 6598) Ecole Centrale de Nantes, B.P. 92101, F-44321 NANTES Cedex 3, France

Search for more papers by this author
F. Chen

F. Chen

Research Applications Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 80307, USA

Search for more papers by this author
A. Coutts

A. Coutts

School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, 3800, Australia

Search for more papers by this author
A. Dandou

A. Dandou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Physics, Department of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Laboratory of Meteorology, Building Physics V, University Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece

Search for more papers by this author
K. Fortuniak

K. Fortuniak

Department of Meteorology and Climatology University of Lodz Narutowicza 88 Lodz Poland 90139

Search for more papers by this author
M. L. Gouvea

M. L. Gouvea

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK

Search for more papers by this author
R. Hamdi

R. Hamdi

Royal Meteorological Institute, Department II, section 3 Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium

Search for more papers by this author
M. Hendry

M. Hendry

Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK

Search for more papers by this author
M. Kanda

M. Kanda

Department of International Development Engineering. Tokyo Institute of Technology,2-12-1-14-9, O-okayama, Megro-KU, Tokyo, Japan

Search for more papers by this author
T. Kawai

T. Kawai

Research Center for Environmental Risk, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan

Search for more papers by this author
Y. Kawamoto

Y. Kawamoto

School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan

Search for more papers by this author
H. Kondo

H. Kondo

Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciecne and Technology,Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8569, JAPAN

Search for more papers by this author
E. S. Krayenhoff

E. S. Krayenhoff

Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z2, Canada

Search for more papers by this author
S.-H. Lee

S.-H. Lee

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea

Search for more papers by this author
T. Loridan

T. Loridan

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK

Search for more papers by this author
A. Martilli

A. Martilli

Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040, Spain

Search for more papers by this author
V. Masson

V. Masson

CNRM-GAME, Météo France/CNRS, Toulouse, 31057 Cedex 1, France

Search for more papers by this author
S. Miao

S. Miao

Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, 100089, China

Search for more papers by this author
K. Oleson

K. Oleson

Earth System Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 80307, USA

Search for more papers by this author
R. Ooka

R. Ooka

School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan

Search for more papers by this author
G. Pigeon

G. Pigeon

CNRM-GAME, Météo France/CNRS, Toulouse, 31057 Cedex 1, France

Search for more papers by this author
A. Porson

A. Porson

Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK

Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB, UK

Search for more papers by this author
Y.-H. Ryu

Y.-H. Ryu

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea

Search for more papers by this author
F. Salamanca

F. Salamanca

Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Madrid, 28040, Spain

Search for more papers by this author
G.J. Steeneveld

G.J. Steeneveld

Meteorology and Air Quality Section, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands

Search for more papers by this author
M. Tombrou

M. Tombrou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Physics, Department of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Laboratory of Meteorology, Building Physics V, University Campus, 157 84 Athens, Greece

Search for more papers by this author
J. A. Voogt

J. A. Voogt

Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London ON N6A 5C2 Canada

Search for more papers by this author
D. T. Young

D. T. Young

Department of Geography, King's College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK

Search for more papers by this author
N. Zhang

N. Zhang

School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, 210093, China

Search for more papers by this author
First published: 07 October 2010
Citations: 279

Abstract

Urban land surface schemes have been developed to model the distinct features of the urban surface and the associated energy exchange processes. These models have been developed for a range of purposes and make different assumptions related to the inclusion and representation of the relevant processes. Here, the first results of Phase 2 from an international comparison project to evaluate 32 urban land surface schemes are presented. This is the first large-scale systematic evaluation of these models. In four stages, participants were given increasingly detailed information about an urban site for which urban fluxes were directly observed. At each stage, each group returned their models' calculated surface energy balance fluxes. Wide variations are evident in the performance of the models for individual fluxes. No individual model performs best for all fluxes. Providing additional information about the surface generally results in better performance. However, there is clear evidence that poor choice of parameter values can cause a large drop in performance for models that otherwise perform well. As many models do not perform well across all fluxes, there is need for caution in their application, and users should be aware of the implications for applications and decision making. Copyright © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society